Turning Theory into Practice: Giving Students a Voice!

 “The Human Voice is the most perfect instrument of all” –Arvo Pärt

The project theme for my Writing Theory and Practice course this semester has been the theory and ideas behind voice. From finding you voice as an identity, to applying voice to pedagogical practice: the power of voice is limitless. With that said, my contribution to the class project is turning theory into practice. Using the practical work as a Reading Coach for 2nd grade students, I was able to come up with a simple, fun, and constructive way to help my students to take control of their learning and to find their voice in the young world of academia!

Learning goals book: month of december

With the help from two of my students, they were the first two to test out these new personally designed books I made for an ongoing practice to help my students. These books are called Learning Goals Books. These books serve as another medium of communication between my students and me. In my current (and last year) classroom settings, the class ratio of teachers to students was 3:24. Even with that being the case, to target every students with specific needs (ESL, IEPs, and cultural difference, just to name a few) can make instruction time quite hard in an ELA class. Going off of my own observation, writing and speaking seems to be two of the main issues plaguing my students. Building a sound foundation for rhetoric and composition is essential for our young scholars to be successful in the rest of their academic journey. This book was produce by research that I gained as a current grad student, practical experience as a Reading Coach, and the creativity of the artist in me to help give my students their voice.

Cover of the book

These two students were very excited to be the ones to test out the books! Below is an audio recording of our interaction with introducing the books. To the right is my young scholar friends holding their books that they designed!

Recording #1

Opening the books: Sticky notes to ms. p!

This is where the communication begins! Just before we dive into the sticky notes, you can hear in the audio the excitement and fun that my students had getting and decorating their new books. As shown above are the “sticky notes” that my students will use to communicate with me. Listen to the audio below for more in depth instructional time.

Recording #2


This next audio is just us sharing our sticky note response to the question; I am excited about learning:

Recording #3

The following recording is the second prompt on the sticky note that asks the following: I still need help with___. This portion of the sticky note is where the students take control over what they want to target and gain more skills about.

Recording #4


The next audio is us mapping out how we are going obtain these goals! It was so cute watching my students fumble over their words because they did not know how to exactly say what they wanted. I was able to understand what they were trying to convey.

Recording #5
last remarks/back of book

This last recording is concluding remarks with reassuring the schedule of their books, how they will be used, and the reward for meeting their goals! I am very excited ot see what the last week of December brings for us!

Recording #6

continuing study

I am very excited and pleased that the books turned out this way. As I continually stated, this project will continue on for the rest of the school year to see where it takes the students. This tool is mainly used towards my “targeted students” that I see are having trouble with certain things throughout the school year. There will be a different set of students each month, depending on their needs and areas that need improvement. Please checkout my last blog post: https://learningthroughthearts.home.blog/2019/12/07/turing-theory-into-practice-giving-students-a-voice/ to see the research behind my little books! Thank you for stopping by and checking out my project, Namaste.

Giving our Students a Voice: Listening to our Learners

Just teaching at our students is not enough for them to gain a proper education. In my now second year serving as a Reading Coach through AmeriCorps, I have been able to see my previous statement as a reality; for students that I had and currently have the pleasure to work with. The current population of students I serve are urban city students, who are first generation English speakers. My second grade students have humbled me to the idea that students should have control over their education. The issue that comes into play is that, who will actually listen to them?

During my first year as a Graduate Student, I have been able to put the theory from my courses into practice with my second graders. Through different creative exercises, discovery learning outcomes, and putting play into learning, I have a new understanding as to what is best for my students. With that said, I have come to these, and many other conclusion, by doing the following for my students : Listening to them! No, I am not the perfect educator, but I am willing to hear their ideas and stories because they have so much to say! The following three areas are where I see my students’ voice needs to be heard the most: Voice in their writing, the silenced dialogue, and ESL learners.

silenced dialogue


This snippet of the article kind of breaks down the forms of power and how it plays a role in education. I found the first three points to be the ones most suitable to meet the needs of the classroom.

  • (1)Issues of power are enacted in classrooms.
    • Power of teacher over students. Teachers ultimately choose the learning.
  • (2) There are codes or rules for participating in power
    • Linguistic forms, communicative strategies, and presentation self.
  • (3) The rules of the culture of power are are a reflection of the rules of the culture of those who have power
    • The success in institutions – schools, workplaces, and etc – is predicated upon acquisition of the culture of those in power

“Many liberal educators hold that the primary goal for education is for children to become autonomous, to develop fully who they are in the classroom setting without having arbitrary, outside standards forced upon them.”

“The dilemma is not really in the debate over instructional methodology. But rather in communicating across cultures and in addressing the more fundamental issue of power, of whose voice gets to be heard in determining what is best for poor children and children of color.”

ESL Learners

ESL students are defined as the following: People who come to live in an English – speaking country, and do not speak English very well (http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/ESL) . With research on the topic of ESL students as an undergraduate, and my current experience as a Reading Coach, I’ve been able to have both the education and field experience with the ESL student population. In the aspect of learning English in an academic setting, ESL students may have a harder time understanding the “standard English” that is accepted into the world of academia. By trying to speak this academic English language, many issues may appear in their writing. Unfortunately, the academic system in most native – English speaking countries only see writing as a way of truly understanding English “correctly”. Even many native – English speaking student writers have trouble with writing and the process it takes to become a good writer. With that said, we as educators (on all platforms) must approach ESL students in a manner that both benefits them and their best interest to grow as writers. Now that I have made a clear understanding of the position where the ESL students stand, it is now appropriate to introduce the article. 

Most public schools have approximately a class size of a 1:23 ratio of teacher to students. It is quite challenging for one teacher to address the specific needs of every student, especially if they have slight extra baggage (disabilities, IEPs, ESL, etc.); this is where tutors come into play. As I stated previously, tutors’ roles are to aid with the writing process, to help students develop their writing. Unfortunately, even tutors must address the elephant in the room: Tutors need help and pointers on how to work with ESL students. Unlike native – English speakers, ESL students have deeper rooted issues with their writing, that might even be a handful for tutors. This article is a breath of fresh air for tutors who have students that come from ESL backgrounds. The reading goes on to break down into 11 subcategories that tutors may face with their students and options to help their situation.

voice in writing

“Writers in fact depend on readers’ willingness to stay with a text, even a difficult one, without judging it prematurely on the basis of its apparent violation of their own perspectives or impressions of some subject.”

“I found the first three points to be the ones most suitable to meet the
needs of the classroom.” But unfortunately, we do not see in the case of our young beautiful writers. This writing stigma is built upon the relationship we have between them as student and teacher (I am currently very guilty of this with my 2nd Graders).

“When we consider how writing is taught, however, this normal and dynamic connection between a writer’s authority and the quality of a reader’s attention is altered because of the peculiar relationship between teacher and student.”

Due to teachers feeling that they have this intellectual and experienced authority over the students writing, we try to have a say over what type of voice the student is trying to have inn their writing. We come in with having the best intentions, but it falls short when we let this authority ego take over.

Sticky note to ms. p!

This is my project for the theme of voice in writing and education, I am giving my students the chance to voice their opinions and input on how they want to shape their education.

I created this replica of a “sticky note” that my students are accustomed to me using when I give them feedback on their writing. For each month, I will give my students theses replica sticky notes as weekly personal learning goal setters. At the beginning of each week, the students will take 5 minutes to fill out the sticky note so that we can work on their goals for the week. For my project, I will share some completed books on my blog!

further reading

Elbow, Peter. RECONSIDERATIONS : Voice in Writing Again: Embracing Contraries. 2007, scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=eng_faculty_pubs.

Harris, Muriel, and Tony Silva. “Tutoring ESL Students: Issues and Options.” College Composition and Communication, vol. 44, no. 4, 1993, p. 525., doi:10.2307/358388.

Delpit, Lisa. “The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children.” Harvard Educational Review, vol. 58, no. 3, 1988, pp. 280–299., doi:10.17763/haer.58.3.c43481778r528qw4.

Checkout my new blog to see me turn this theory into practice!


Learning Outcomes: What do I wanna learn from this course

Your blog post for this week should be a description of your own personal goals for this project.  This is not an invitation to share your freewriting.  Rather, your blog post should be a more polished or cohesive narrative (or summary-description) of what you have learned from the freewriting.  In your blog reflection, please identify learning outcomes that matter the most to you.  What do you want to learn?  In addition, please describe a few project concepts that you have developed in order to realize the learning outcomes that are most meaningful to you.  In other words, please describe a few project concepts with as much detail as possible.  What do you want to make?  Why?   http://writingtheorypractice.miazamoraphd.com/

The passage above are instruction for this week’s blog post. Now that my class and I have gone through all the scholarly articles and presentations within our cohort, there is just one final thing to do… PROJECT time. To refresh my readers for the goal of this course, I am using this blog platform for. It is to introduce incoming grad students within the M.A. in English Writing Studies program into theory behind the pedagogy of writing. This class has been nothing short of amazing! But this blog is not a class reflection blog, it is of my own personal and development blog.

To jump into the question Dr. Zamora has presented to the class, my learning outcome that are most meaningful to me is to use all my new resources and knowledge from this course (alongside my other courses) to apply to both my filed of work and future academic path. Unfortunately, during our freewrite time in class I was only able to produce obituary ideas that was just something to get down on to paper. When Dr. Zamora proposed these questions, I was a bit upset and confused. Throughout all my academic training, I was always TOLD what to do, not what do I want to do. So this question had me quite stuck in my thoughts. Not until I finished presenting my own presentation that I was able to give the appropriate answer to Dr. Zamora proposed question.

In reality, my fellow academics are the ones I need to thank for helping me come to what learn outcomes the matters to me the most from this course. I will not say this classmate’s name (she is an AMAZING poet!), but her comments about my presentation stood out to me the most. My poet friend told me, “I can easily see you with your PhD!”, and I thought to myself, “Is the woman really serious!?” So throughout this entire week I have been pondering on that comment she made to me. With that said, I began my research in possible PhD programs that I feel would be a fit for me and I for it.

So what is the point of this narrative you may ask? The answer is this: My learning outcomes that matter the most to me is producing work that I can potentially be apart of a scholarly journal, conference, or applied to real life field work. My first semester as a grad student has shown me that everything I have learned always makes a full circle to connect to my potential academic and real life career goals.

With that said, some projects that have come to me are the following:

  • Creative piece surrounded around the idea of the writing process (alongside a piece of academic writing
  • Addressing the issues of the RED PEN affect (of course art is going to be implemented!)

Also, here is another possible confrence that this project could be submitted for: https://www.rhetoricsociety.org/aws/RSA/pt/sp/conference

Tutoring ESL Students: Issues & Options

Greeting all! We are at the point in the semester where I am presenting the designated reading for the week, rather than just blogging about. So intead of my usual blog, I will be leaving my REACTION PAPER and presentation so that you all (my classmates) can view it in preparation for tomorrows class!

Presentation: https://prezi.com/view/2PZvS6zED7eQy309yOXB/

Reaction Paper: https://docs.google.com/document/d/10UrGQq_sfLQ-lnbohUWM34yAWGtPVlE2Nu6Ry-YikME/edit?usp=sharing

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

When jumping into this article, I was just mind blown of what I was about dive deep into… But first, I would like you to take the time out to listen to one of my favorite revolutionary artist Jermaine Cole, better know as J. Cole. **Click on link under his picture***. After reading this article, I was moved to come back to one of his older songs, High 4 Hours, recorded in 2017. Please do not be fooled by the title of the song, but be moved by meanings in his lyrics. I am telling you, he is truly an amazing, poetic, and well spoken artist!

I am going to be complete honest, I was a little confused and intimidated when I first began to read this article. There were a lot of powerful words being thrown around and I did not know exactly how to place them (that truly made me nervous). As I went to read through it again, I was able to make connection as to what Freire wanted me to take away from this reading. I was then able to connect the J. Cole song to his words and it all made since! As I said before, I am still trying to gain the true grasp of this reading, so I decided to take another pace on how to approach this article. So with further a due, lets dissect this!

“This, then, is the great humanistic and historical task of the oppressed: to liberate themselves and their oppressors as well (Freier)”

When reading this statement, I could not help but think of another inspirational speaker; Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Like many of us know, he was the voice (this word voice is always there) for one the most know pacifistic movements. He believed that we should not over throw and hate our oppressor, but help free not just us but themselves from their own darkness.

“Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.” — Martin Luther King, Jr. With this quote, this verse from J. Cole’s song High 4 Hours says something just as similar to Dr. King

“Look at the power, but you know what power does to man
Corruption always leads us to the same shit again
So when you talk about revolution dawg, I hear just what you saying What good is taking over, when we know what you gon’ do
The only real revolution happens right inside of you (J. Cole 2017).”

The next statement that I found interesting to look deeper into is the following: “But almost always, during the initial stage of the struggle, the oppressed, instead of striving for liberation, tend themselves to become oppressors, or ‘sub-oppressors’.”

When reading this statement, I could not helped but be reminded by the constantly oppressed ethnicity I just so happened to belong, African American. Fun fact, during my undergrad studies as an English major, the majority of my education was based on identity and finding out more about my people. I was fully aware of the slavery and racism that most blacks faced in the United States, but until I got to college, I was oblivious to what underlining impact issues that they faced. The statement above took me back to look at some of my old academic writing that ties into a snippet of what this article is trying to convey.

“Another form of this racism that appeared in the book was not towards Jacobs herself, but towards the other slaves around her. “I admit that the black man is inferior. But what is it that makes him so? It is the ignorance in which white men compel him to live; it is the torturing whip that lashes manhood out of him; it is the fierce bloodhounds of the South, and the scarcely less cruel human bloodhounds of the north, who enforce the Fugitive Slave Law. They do the work (Jacobs p. 49).” When a person is put in fear that if they are willing to learn then they are willing to die he will want to stay ignorant in order to live. Commonly known through history, it was forbidden for any slave to learn how to read or write. Such acts of trying to educate themselves left options of being whipped, being sold off, or being killed. This “peculiar institution” left slaves naturally feeling as though they were born to be less capable than the white man, leaving them ignorant, and the white man with more power (Patricia Dennis 2017). “

I found this next statement very interesting because it makes the oppressed take a step back from themselves and their actions towards each other. When oppressed people feel compelled to keep their thought, anger, feeling, and all other factors towards their own kind; how can they ever feel truly empowered to face those who made them this way?” When I look at this quote, it reminds me of the African American Theory I studied as an undergrad. The African American theory address many aspects as to what makes it a theory; one aspect I vividly remember was internal racism. From as far as slavery, all the way to present time, this is still an issue with most people of color. Instead trying to crawl out of the barrel, we look as to why we need to keep others in the barrel down. Instead of fighting the hate outside, many fail to face their own inner issues caused be oppressor.

To end off this article, I would like to leave this quote from the text to thing about:

“If the goal of the oppressed is to become fully human, they will not achieve their goal by merely reversing the terms of the contradiction, by simply changing poles.”

The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children

This article really was a great follow up read to the first article in my blog. The best part about this article is that I was able to put myself within, as being both a student and educator of color. It was very hard to NOT want to write about everything in this article, so I was able to break it down to six quotes/points I found most interesting.

“My charge here is not to determine the best instructed methodology; I believe that the actual practice of good teachers of all colors typically incorporates a range of pedagogical orientations.”

Wow! This statement has so much truth behind it! No good teachers sticks to one approach when teaching any student. With each school year, there are new set of students, and with each new set of students, the are different strutted minds to teach. With that, a particular methodology is always the best but the amount of effort educators put into finding different and exciting ways to engage ALL students. I wish many of my primary teachers would have taken a gander at this article! I also want you to remember the above statement later down the line throughout the discussion topics in my post.

The culture of power

This snippet of the article kind of breaks down the forms of power and how it plays a role in education. I found the first three points more suited towards the classrooms.

  • (1)Issues of power are enacted in classrooms.
    • Power of teacher over students. Teachers ultimately choose the learning.
  • (2) There are codes or rules for participating in power
    • Linguistic forms, communicative strategies, and presentation self.
  • (3) The rules of the culture of power are are a reflection of the rules of the culture of those who have power
    • The success in institutions – schools, workplaces, and etc – is predicated upon acquisition of the culture of those in power

Tying my experience into the mix is that above points are true. The culture of power is something that is established in certain classrooms, with certain teachers, in certain circumstances. For example, being educated in Newark was not the most greatest places to get a decent education, but I was fortunate. The primary school I went to had teachers that looked just like me and was able to take grab of that power of culture and shape it into something to help the school grows. But that was not the case for many other schools in Newark.

“Many liberal educators hold that the primary goal for education is for children to become autonomous, to develop fully who they are in the classroom setting without having arbitrary, outside standards forced upon them.”

Is that what we all as educators want for our students? Not only do students have normal academic pressure on their back, but even more standards thrown on them. SAT, ACT, NJ ASK, HESPA.. these are just a few outside standard test I had to face as a high school student, I can’t imagine what the standards are now. These rules and standards are set on these students to become something other themselves. Speaking for the perspective of colored student, we were told to leave our “ghetto ways” at the door to get into academic formation. What does that even mean? Do I need to put on cape on intellect to fit the personality of education atmosphere?

“They (Black parents) want to assurance that school provides their children with discourse patterns, interaction styles, and written language codes that will allow them success in the real world.”

12 hours shifts, 4 hours of sleep, making ends meet… just so that their child can receive an education that will help them survive and hopefully thrive in society. The first person I thought of in this statement is my mom. The person I just described in the beginning of this passage is my mother. While writing this post, I was on the phone with my boyfriend describing to him how I do not really remember my mom staying home a lot or seeing her as often as I do now. Looking back at it now, I get it. She worked so hard so that I can have better opportunities in this world that will judge my knowledge off the color of my school. Though she could not always be at the PTA or parent conference meetings, she prayed that my teachers would see fit that my mind did not go to waste. That’s what any parent would hope for their child.

“The dilemma is not really in the debate over instructional methodology. but rather in communicating across cultures and in addressing the more fundamental issue of power, of whose voice gets to be heard in determining what is best for poor children and children of color.”

Coincidentally enough, that above statement (which is close to the end of the article) sounds a lot like the first statement in talked about in this article. But instead of focusing on the teaching approach itself, it concentrates more on the voice and understating for the students. Food for thought I wanted to leave behind in this post.

Voice in Writing Again: Embracing Contraries

Jumping right into this article, I dearly beloved Peter Elbow gives us a little background in the history of voice paying a major role in writing. Fun fact: In the 1960’s, a surge of enthusiasm for getting voice into writing was a major thing! But with enthusiastic, there is always bound the nay Sayers, or in this case the critics. So it become a tug of war with what our students genuinely need in their writings.

As I always like to say, history seems to always repeats itself. Way before this had became a topic of discussion, it brings us back to the Greeks!

This conflict about voice in our field echoes a much older conflict about the self in language. The Greek sophists offered, in effect, to help craft any voice for any speech to help win any argument or law case—no matter what kind of self. Plato, in reaction, argued that the power of language derived, to some real extent, from the nature of the rhetor’s self: only a good rhetor can create really good words. To learn to speak or write better, we need also to work on being better persons.

With that said… lets jump into this article!

The Current Situation

As previously talked about in the beginning of my blog, voice in writing has been going on over the centuries, but most recently it has hit a dead wall. People do not take the topic of voice in writing too seriously, and the fact that has been discredited in journals and books goes to show the fact in unfortunately true. But there is hope! It lives in the writing, thoughts, and feels of our students within the classroom. I found this statement in the article both intresting and inspiring.:

“[Jane Danielewicz quotes a comment by one of her students: “I turned down your suggestion for revising just because I thought it took away some of my personal voice in some places” (personal conversation)].”

This quote reminds me of my own doubts when it comes to my writing. I find my own voice to abrasive or unnecessary, so I began to write in passive voice. Fortunately, the more I write, the more I am encouraged to use my true voice within my writings.

As the article continues, voice also plays a role in:

  • Politics
  • Internet (via email)

Even with voice being so vital both in and outside the classrooms, we are ignoring the topic with the writing field? The article goes on to say how critics tend to get tired of a topic that is not in hot discussion. How ironic is that? Topics such as digital media (my growing love!), public wiring, service learning, and even World Englishes (another one of my growing loves!) are more entertaining to argue about.


Within this part of the article, we try to understand what is compressible in this argument of voice. Elbow goes on to refer to Aristotle’s position on voice:

“He’s not saying that rhetors should find a halfway position where they are a little bit good and natural and a little bit clever at disguising. Being only somewhat good and somewhat clever is a formula for mediocrity. My both/and reading of the crux passage is consistent with the kind of thinking that Aristotle uses in various places in his work. He often deals with tricky issues by saying, “in one sense, X; but, in another sense, Y.” That is, he often implies that we can understand a complex topic well only if we can look at it first through one lens and then through a contrary lens.”

As much as I could understand about this portion of the articles, when it comes to voice.

NCte: On Students’ Rights to Their Own Texts: A Model of Teacher Response

Now that we got some enlightenment from Elbow, now we hope into the next article backs up Elbow’s article on that importance and relationship of voice in young writers. In the first two pages, we start of by addressing the voice in writing when it comes to experienced writers. The fact the we assume they know as much about the topic they are writing about as we know, or even better. We give them a chance to get their point across we retain their voice of authority.

“Writers in fact depend on readers’ willingness to stay with a text, even a difficult one, without judging it prematurely on the basis of its apparent violation of their own perspectives or impressions of some subject.”

Of course for many of us who have been reading our entire lives, see no fault in this true assumption. But unfortunately, we do not see in the case of our young beautiful writers. We do not see them having the capability to have this type of authority. This writing stigma is built upon the relationship we have between them as student and teacher (I am currently very guilty of this with my 2nd Graders).

“When we consider how writing is taught, however, this normal and dynamic connection between a writer’s authority and the quality of a reader’s attention is altered because of the peculiar relationship between teacher and student.”

Due to teachers feeling that they have this intellectual and experienced authority over the students writing, we try to have a say so over what type of voice the student is trying to have inn their writing. We come in with having the best intentions, but it fall shorts when we let this authority ego take over.

The Popularity of Formulaic Writing (And Why We Need to Resist)

Within the reading for this weeks class to get prepared for the next presentations, we are taking a look into the role of Formulaic Writing. For those of my readers who are not sure about what exactly is Formulaic Writing is, I will gladly provide a definition. I pulled this definition for this term from another fellow blogger (I will leave the link below!).

Formulaic writing removes agency from student writers.Because formulaic writing holds the control over what, where, when, and how students write, students easily lose agency over the formation of their own ideas. ” – https://writerswhocare.wordpress.com/tag/formulaic-writing/ (This was also an interesting read and would recommend you to check it out!).

So to revert back to this article, there were a lot of interesting point that deemed important to address in the reading. The first point I would like to talk about is the opening statement made by Wiley in his article:

All Eyes on Me …
  • High School teachers concerns and prepping High school seniors for college course
    • What teacher wouldn’t want their student to exceed? The issue with this is that we as educator can have all the passion in the world to get our student to their highest peek of education, but aren’t we only human too?
    • Most teachers are up against:
      • Scarce resources (We buy our own material!)
      • Building in disrepair (On Friday of last week, I literally had an electrician interrupt the class to ask me about a light bulb in the hallway!)
      • Classrooms are over crowded (Every other week there is about 1-3 new students arriving in my class … I am up to 52 students now!)

Factoring in all of these issues, no including any outside personal issues, this is the stress level of your everyday educator; which brings me to the point of this article. Teachers are so burnout to this point that they look for the most convenient and easy way to teach. When looking at Writing teachers, this is where the five paragraph essay, and many others like it, format is born and taught! There is not to say that this format does not have its benefits, but we are in the same way hindering our students in the process of creativity and unique in writing; which many college professor are actually looking for in essays.

My one experience of how I was brutally tore away from this particular format was during my first writing composition course as an undergrad. My professor literally made all of us as a class go through the five paragraph essay process. After the class, and my professor included, made us do this task… she instructed us to rip the essay up and throw it in the garbage! That is how I was broken away from the rut of the five paragraph essay. But unfortunately, not everyone will have a professor like that, so what do we do next?

The Jane Schaffer Approach teaching Writing

As displayed above, here is a format sample of Jane Schaffer’s essay outline. Unlike the regular five paragraph format, Schaffer gives us a more advanced structure to teaching formulaic essays. This essay also goes alongside of pre-writing activities, diagrams, and graphic organizers. Even though this is still considered a Formulaic approach, but its a different breath of fresh air. The benefit for students: Learning how to separate fact from opinion.

Criticism of Formulaic Writing (page. 5)
Within this part of the article, Wiely goes on to address the issues and concerns to teaching students writing.

  • Traditional text book advice about forming essays are sending the wrong message about what writing is.
    • Too much focused on the product and not the process of discovery!
  • To develop as writers, students to build their repertoire of strategies for dealing with writing.
    • The same way we were not born speaking, is the same mind set we need to have towards in their own writing voice. We must not teach them what to say, but how to find their own voice!
  • Wiely goes on to put Scaffer’s approach into two categories:
    • Goal: Gives a formula to produce a well content essay.
    • Contrast: Real writers know what is needed, you can not contain them into a writing format bubble.

I also came across this interesting quote from Bruce Piere:

“We send students a perversely minded message when we emphasize that all-importance of structure and then structure can’t be very important.”

Teachers should try to focus on voice and opinion in writing. We are showing the above statement through teaching the formulaic format but want them to think out of the box… that is quite contradicting.

Using Formats as Strategies but Resisting the Formulaic

Now that we are coming to an end of this very insightful, I would like to point out Wiley suggestions and strategist to using this Formulaic format in an impact way without becoming writing robots.

  • Format writing = less messiness
    • Even though this format is frowned upon for creativity, it does serve its purpose as being like an idea organizer!
  • Students also need:
  • Procedural Knowledge: Answers the question of how to accomplish a particular task.
  • Conditional Knowledge: Answers the question of when to make a particular choice.

When applied to writing, all three factors are needed!

High Stakes and Low Stakes in Assigning and Responding to Writing

In this article, we will be taking a gander at pros, cons, and everything else around Low and High stakes Writing Assignments.

Assigning Writing

The first thing we are going to do is actually define what these terms me (I hate difficult language that interrupts my reading!)

  • High Stakes Writing Assignments: is graded for both content and mechanics. It usually requires us to consider a more formal audience as well. In school, high stakes writing is the essay that must conform to the teacher’s guidelines and can count for 20% or more of your grade!
  • Low Stakes Writing Assignments:  Frequent, informal assignments that make students spend time regularly reflecting in. written language on what they are learning from discussions, readings, lectures, and their own thinking.

Between these terms, there is a common theme as proposed by Elbow… both students and teachers can learn from each assessment! An example of High Stakes writing assignment Are assignments essay questions on a writing assessment, writing reports, etc. Some example of low stakes writing assignments would be prewriting, simple prompt questions, “DO NOW”, etc.

Another valid point that was brought up in the article was that:

  • Students can understand or know a piece of information but can’t articulate through writing. These students have the fear of not being to write, or not having the skills in general. This fear and stigma that is placed upon these students’ fears can be portrayed as “lazy writers”.

We should honor nonverbal knowing, inviting students to use low stakes writing to fumble and fish for words of what they sense and intuit but cannot yet clearly say.”

This statement from the text hit home for me because it reminded me of one of my most promising students from last school year. She was one of my ESL students that used all tools around her to develop her ELA skills. When I would work 1 – on – 1 with her to develop her writing, we would use sticky notes to write down all her ideas (low stakes) before we would do the writing assignment (high stakes). For the rest of the year, she would continue to use my sticky notes to develop her writing skills.

Importance of Low Stakes Writing

There is always a big to do when it comes to High Stakes Writing; due to us wanting to push our student’s skills, trying to satisfy a curriculum, or major test taking. We as educator need to take a step back and look at the importance of Low Stakes Writing. These types of writings help students develop with the agonizing feeling of judgement for us scary writing teachers. The are also many different forms of Low Stakes Writing:

  • Speech can be both used as a Low Stakes and used in an evaluating setting.
  • Writing can be informally: Kept secret, be revised before seen.

Special Benefits of Low Stakes Writing

  • Help students involve themselves in the subject matter: They are taking control of their own learning!
  • Livelier, clearer, and more natural writing: You would be surprised how good of a writer a student can be when they are not under pressure!
  • Improves the quality of High Stakes Writing: Practice! Practice! Practice!
  • Gives teachers a better view of how students understand the course: Low Stakes does not just benefit students, but teachers as well.
  • Forces students to keep up with the assigned readings: Our blogs… Ha!

To wrap up my lovely blog, I am going to share some other points I found valid to add on and sparks some interesting discussions! Please leave comments on your thoughts!

Responding to Writing

  • Unclear comments from teachers on students’ essays: Please refer to one of my older blogs “Responding to Students Writers” for more in depth conversation about the matter.

Continuum Between High and Low Stakes Responding

  • Zero response (low stakes): Students appreciate to be heard without dealing with a response
  • Minimal, nonverbal, noncritical response: Straight lines under phrases, checks in margins… In my case, colorful sharpie markers!
  • Critical Response, diagnosis, advice (high stakes): Asking crucial pragmatic questions: “Is this comment worth it?’“How much response do I need?”

Another little I would like to add as special treat for my fellow first year gradmates! https://www.theodditty.com/blog/first-semesterof-gradschoolrecap

Writing Assessment in the Early 21st – Century

The reading for this week’s class was a little tricky for me, the pressure of grad school is kicking in! From the encouragement and humor of my fellow grad students, there is still hope for me! So lets jump into some key points I find interesting to address within the article.


I found this portion of the article very interesting because I can see how these waves are still seen in assesemnts today, in pratical, in my own experience as both an educator and student.

The first wave we are presented with in the article is:

Testing: Placement Assessment

When reading about this, I could not help but think of my past and current students at the school I work for. Referring back to my course World Englishes, the English language continues to grow and spread as years past. With that being said, it is pretty hard to determine the true standard form of English, unless it is in an academic setting. Unfortunatley, not everyone student globally is taught this standard for of English most colleges and universities are looking for. Here are also some keys points I found intresting in this section:

  • College, “regular” – first year composition course
    • Looking back at my little rant above, this bullet point more so targets international students who come to these american universities having their own understanding of English. The misconstruction it that they do not understand English (according to the assessments) when in all reality, they have a different view point of what is standard English
  • How well a student can edit another author’s writing
    • How fun was this part of the SAT!
  • Pro – can evaluate a student’s level
    • Of course I had to add in an upside because it is fun to ply devil’s advocate. But in all seriousness, there is definable an upside to writing assessments. We are able to see the mile marker for the students so us as educator know where to start from and move forward.

The second wave is: The Writing Process

Out of all the waves, I can say this one is truly my favorite. We actually get to the nitty gritty of how we are phiscally hands on preping the students to prepare for these writing assesments.

  • Hollistic scoring: Sampling students writing, scoring guide
    • Instead of just throughing the students into the wilderness of the assesemnt, there is sampling wiritng and guides being shown. The hardest part about writing is getting started, so imagine being thrown a writing prompt and not know what the graders are looking for. Being able to refer to or even looking at something that graders want seen in writing is a heads up in the game!
  • Teachers theaching the prompt questions
    • This takes me back to the days of my 11th garde school year, when we were getting preped for the HESPA. This test determined if we were allowed to move on to 12th grade. Since this test was very dier, there was a entire week dedicated towards preparing us for this test. ELA teachers from all grade levels were preping us for the type of essay prompts we would be tested, which it did make a big difference on how I approched tje test!

The third wave is: Attenetion to multiple text

What I took away from within this wave it two point:

  • Looking at writing on different multitudes
    • Of course there is a such thing of writing outside the world of academia (Happy National Day on Writing!). As I like to continue to stress, there is writing on so many different platforms and our students are not introduce to it. Of course, these piece of information is a bit dated, but it still applies to our students today!
  • “You can write a successful theses but not a journal article”

What is WAC?

This acumen of WAC conitnued to appear throughout the reading, so I though it noeworthy to jot it down in my notes. So when coming back to my notes, I set a reminder to look up what it means.

In its simplest form, Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) recognizes and supports the use of writing in any and every way and in every and any course offered at a learning institution. A WAC Program in its simplest term is any organized, recognized, and sustained effort–no matter how modest in people, resources, and funding–to help faculty in any and every course use writing more deliberately and more often. https://wac.colostate.edu/resources/wac/intro/programs/

This program reminds me a lot of my current program, AmeriCorps. As said in the article, WAC is a grant funded program that is meant to produce results in bettering students writing assessments. Depending on these results will determine future funding. The same aspects going into AmeriCorps. A government funded program designed to improve students writing and reading abilities.

From the reading, Yancey propsed the three purposes of Program Assesments as the following:

  • To see what the program is doing well in
  • To determine how the program might improve
  • To demonstrate to others why the program should continue to be funded

The Current Moment

To end my blog, I thought that addressing some of the minor themes about The Current Moment would be quite fitting.

  • Consider how writing and critical thinking are related
    • I am sorry, but this theme here is a no brainier. So many assessments are looking for the product and not the thought process nehind it. Critical thinking is esence, spirt, amd soul behind true writing. If there is not any cirtical thinking behind writing, then we producing one in the same kind of writers.
  • Social inequalities (racial inequities)
    • I thought I would give a little example of this from a hand for my World Englishes course (As you can tell, I really enjoy this course!). To the write of this passage is a handout about a woman who starts her own business. As a class we identified the Formal Schemata for this writing. Then we had to look at in a perspective of a global setting. In most cultural outside of the US, most of the actions being down in this writing is outside of their cultural norms. How do we expect them to relate to a reading they never experienced?

Teaching Writing as a Process … NOT a Product

When reading this article, I could not feel nothing but overwhelmed with joy and satisfaction that this elephant in the room has final been addressed! With writing being apart of history as we know it today, these are still a lot of issues as as educators fail to address, and within this article we definitely do address it. So what this topic we will be looking at in this article is *drum rolls* … The process of writing!

The first topic I would like to drop some discussion on is what I would describe as The Writing Cycle. I want to take step back not just start off by just directly talking about the students but us, their teachers. For too long we have always been too quick to point the at finger at our students and not take a step back at ourselves! As I was reading, I came across an interesting point about a writing cycle for teaches. So it goes like this (in order): Training teachers to teach writing – We use these tools to teach students – Students are usually confused by the instructions – teachers pass on frustration to these students on to the next teacher – the next teacher uses the most likely use the same teaching tools as the previous teachers. What I took away from this little cycle is that not we only do we need to look at the writing process of our students, but the process of how we go about teaching them! For the sake of both me not being able to make or finding a picture similar to this cycle I wanted to put in visuals, I am going to show you a very simplified version of what the teaching writing process SHOULD look like, to an extent (on the left side of this passage).

Another point I would like to address is the way us as English teachers should teach the process of discovery through language. Referring back to my World Englishes course, with America expanding as a melting pot and majority of world adapting English in some part of their lives, people perceptions of English in so many different ways. Of course we as educators want to teacher our students the traditional academic standard of writing, but we first need to come to a common ground.

The next idea to address is instead of teaching finished writing, we need to teach unfinished writing and the glory in its unfinishedness. Yes, this may sound a bit confusing to the average writing teacher. Why should we teach unfinishedness, it that not backwards teaching? We are not literately teaching our students to half effort their writing, but to be okay with not getting your writing done in one swoop. An example I would like to add in is when I do example reading log writings with my students. Our goal when doing this activity in small group is not to help them finish the log in ones sitting, but to get their ideas flowing so that they can finish the rest on their own. I then send the off with a document I created titled My Reading Log Checklist. This is to further show my student what I am looking for in their writing. Even after having small group with my little scholars, I do not just want to send them away with any confusion! Look back at my last post addressing the confusion of writing teachers instructions.



My Reading log checklist!

Before I put my reading log in the reading log bin,

Do I have:

Do I have my COMPLETE Heading? Do I have an OPENING sentence? Do I have TEXT EVDIENCE? Do I have a CLOSING sentence? OVERALL (Self Editing)
First & Last nameThe dateThe title of my bookIs my book fiction (Fake) or nonfiction (Real)?The question I am answering Did I restate the question I am answering?Do I have details in my opening sentence? (You should not!) Did I say, “In the book it said” or “According to the text”?Do I have at least 1-2 sentences of text evidence?Does my evidence support my opening sentence? Did I restate the question?Does my closing sound like my opening? Did I follow the direction on my sticky from Ms. P?Do I have punctuations? (. , ! ?)Did I answer the CORRECT question for my type of book?Did I check my log using the rubric

Hi 2nd grade friends! This checklist is to help you check that your log is complete. You all are young writers and are going through the writing process! The writing process is the steps you take to make a good writing and become a good writer. This is another tool to help you!

“He doesn’t test his words by a rule book, but by his life.”

I thought this quote and image would fit perfectly within the scheme of my next topic within this article: The Three Stages of Writing. When reading the article, I decide to look back at my writing process of my Fulbright journey targeting these three strategies.

Three Stages of Writing: Pre-writing (85 % of the writer’s time)

This is the part of the stage where you are gathering all your information, jotting down notes, understanding that there is no for sure idea and what exactly you are writing about. When looking back at my Fulbright writing journey, I had to produce two type of essays for my application process. For the sake of time and space, I will leave the link here to what exactly is a Fulbright … just in case you might be interested in applying one day ( https://us.fulbrightonline.org/ )! You can also refer back to some of my older blogs where I am in the Writing Retreat course that was dedicated into developing my essay. That summer course served as starting ground for my pre-writing.

Three Stages of Writing: Writing (1% of the writers time)

Many would think that the actual writing itself takes a enormous of time, but it actually dose not. After all the research, notes, videos, articles, and whatever else you used to gather all of your information, the writing feels like a breeze. I spent about an entire week of my summer course just doing research on my designated country I desire to do my Fulbright grant year in. It took me one sit down to get the first draft done. That was probably the easiest part of my Fulbright writing!

Three Stages of Writing: Rewriting (14% of writing time)

I can of digress with this percentage number, I would give it a little higher number like 30%. Again referring back to my Fulbright experience, my rewriting stage consisted of the following: 5 different drafts, a month of revision meeting with my Fulbright adviser, 4 different meetings with my school’s Writing Center, a couple of headache and tears, just to get th final efforts of finishing these essays. In total, it took me a 5 months to finish the two essays. Every essay varies on the type of writing process you take but it still sums up the generate Three Stages of Writing.

To end my little rant on this article, I would like to leave you with a few bullet points of ideas to consider:

  • How do you get a student do this process? (Three Stages of Writing)
    • Shut up and let them do it, instead of hearing it!
    • Be patient, it is called a process for a reason.
    • Respect our students as writers of the process. We are coaches and encourages!

Bad Ideas About Writing: Failure is Not an Option

Failure (noun): an act or instance of failing or proving unsuccessful; lack of success:His effort ended in failure. The campaign was a failure.

This is the standard definition of failure when looked at on https://www.dictionary.com/browse/failure?s=ts. Within this article I would like to explore on a different perspective such as on an dominate cultural narrative: Failure = weakness laziness, and stupidity. Instead of shaming our students, or our own failures, lets rejoice and welcome all failures in every shape and form!

I want to first start off by giving use a few bullet point on the history of failure from the article:

The History of Failure

  • Mid – 19th Century
    • To fail in reading and writing is meant as a failure of moral fortitude.
  • No Child Left Behind Act: We are so desperate to make sure all of our students to feel belonged that we are sending them under prepared for the next grade. In the 7th grade this act began to take place and made me question should I even try anymore if they are just letting anyone move on to the next grade!
  • Innovations discovered by accident: Post it notes (I love these things!).

Another worthy topic I found interesting in the article is the claim that ‘It takes years – decades, probably of repeated writing failure to get the hang of the technique.” It took me years to realize that writing in notebooks works best for me when doing my initial writing. Unfortunately, I learned and acquired this skill on my own without any guidance, which is a major issue for our student writers. We put so much pressure not to fail that they end up being entirely scared to write, building that mental wall of: I HATE WRITING!

So again, because I am a fan of bullet points (I believe it is an easy way of getting points across without lengthy paragraphs) here are someone worthy topics that came across while I was reading this article.

  • People are afraid to write due to failure.
    • I hate writing, its not fun!
  • Even the grates are failures!
    • So how do we expect our students to not accept failure? We are being Hippocrates people!
  • Writing scholars do not use the word failure, but we should!
    • When was the last time you wrote paper without tossing your entire ideas away?
  • Failure is apart of the process! Just don’t dwell on it.
    • As I would like to stress, its apart of the process, not something to stay stuck in.
  • Manu Kapur: Are brains are actually wired for failure.
    • Its in our wiring, we not built to be perfect

Bad Ideas About Writing: Writer’s Block Just Happens to People

This mental block that we all place on ourselves, whether we want to or not, is what keeps us from the world of creativity we wish to thrive in. Unfortunately, be both an artist of both the liberal and visual arts I know this feeling all to well. Most recently I have been have been experiencing both a writing and art block, hence why I am still writing this blog at 12:32 am on a Monday morning. I took the time to write out all my notes for my assigned reading well before I needed start the block. I began to question my own intelligence and my status of grad students. But I then was reminded from the article that Jacotot believed that everyone – regardless of cultural hierarchy – had the capacity for equal intelligence. I decided to take a break from the world of academia and pick up my pencil and sketch pad. After doing a couple of sketches, I finally became inspired to approach my laptop! One can facilitate writing by embracing the blank page.

Bad Ideas About Writing: Rubrics Oversimplify The Writing Process

  • We have to stick together as educators!
    • Speak up
    • Give advice
  • Students can benefit from a rubric when discussed in advanced
    • Refer back to the beginning of my blog where I introduce My Reading Log Checklist
  • A rubric is also apart of the writing process
    • This would fit into the category of rewriting stage
  • Get students involved in the learning process

Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers: Beginners v. The Experience

When reading this article I was taken back to the summertime of this year. This past summer, I spent most of my time as a Writing Tutor for EOF students at The College of Saint Elizabeth. As this being my first time working with college students, I was very worried that I would be caught in my fraud act of being “an experienced writer”. Little did I know, my students actually loved working with me! So what is the point of this little flashback? After reading this article and looking back at my WONDERFUL experience this past summer, I feel as though I have a different perspective on beginning student writers.

Usually, I like to aim my blogs towards my current 2nd Grade students, but this one will be dedicated towards my now freshmen college students (I hope that they are doing well!). My main objective over the summer was to help them develop as strong writers coming into college. To their surprise, I took my position quite serious and did everything in my power to strengthen their skills when making corrections and drafts to their paper. Whenever I would have my 1-on-1 writing time for each student, the same issue would occur. They would come to me with their papers and see absolutely nothing wrong with them **gasps in English Major voice**. They did not understand the concept of many revisions, that in most times would be the a second draft with new ideas and perspectives. I was at a lost of words and thoughts that they truly felt this way. Sure enough, here come this article that address the idealism behind both student writers (my EOF students) and adult experienced writers (Somewhat me).

Just as with the rhetoric discussion in our previous classes, the Greeks ideas behind the process of composition. We are introduced in this article about The 5 parts of Discourse: inventio (invention), dispositio (arrangement), elocutio (style), memoria (memory), and actio (delivery). I also found this neat slideshow on my fun surfing through the internet, if you would like further explanation on the topic: https://slideplayer.com/slide/15058367/ (fair warned. it is quite long!). To further on, because I like to use what I learned in real life experience, I have been pondering where exactly did my EOF students start, skip, or start their drafts of writing. I can say about 90 % of them were pretty good with inventio, the rest was pretty much up in the air for me to catch. When I would ask some of them, “So why did you put this argument in the beginning, when this connects more with your intro?” … that 90 % answer … “I don’t know, I just want this to be over.” What was I to do?

Looking further into the article another point that stood out to me was the Revision is impossible in Speech. Revision is speech is an afterthought, you can not erase what you said. Like many young writers, my students would write the way they speak and see no issue with this. Bringing some points from my World Englishes course with Dr. Griffith, all English is different everywhere you go. There is no right or wrong, just when to use the “certain type of English” that is acceptable in the world of academia. A lot of my students are from urban areas where there would be slang and miscommunication of how to use certain words in the writing context. Side note: Many of them could not believe I was a native of Newark, NJ. Many of my summertime students would write exactly how they speak, and when I would send them off to edited some areas in their essays, they would either come back exactly the same or some words just “remixed”.

“When revising, students primarily ask themselves: ‘can I find a better word or phrase?'” – I pulled this quote from out the article because this a common thought, I believe, that goes in many student writers mind. Example: I told my EOF student to reorganize his idea in one of the paragraphs I circled. He came back to me 20 minutes later; he moved that paragraph to another section in his paper and he replaced some words with words that I could not even pronounce! It took all the might in me not to start laughing.

Here are some other point I found interesting to discuss in the article. Like with my student in the above, the issue with how students are looking at the aspect of revision or in their case “re-doing” (which strangely was said in my summer writing tutoring) is that they are not thoroughly looking to revise, but to just change words and phrases. Students writers can hear the issues your are trying to express to them about their writing, but lacked the actual understanding of the deeper issue. They are worried about polishing surfaces errors than getting down to the nitty gritty. By all means, this does not make the student a “lazy writer’ just a misunderstood one.


These two articles were very funny to read! I would like to first talk about the article How Remix Culture Informs Student Writing & Creativity. As being closer to the millennium generation, remixing just about everything has been apart of me growing up. Either it be a fashion trend, TV show, or a song, this process of remixing is what has breaded a generation of insta-famous, bloggers, and YouTube sensations! Remixing is a two-way street. When looking back, an important remix for me was the two adaption that I love: Hamlet! My first encounter of Hamlet is with the Disney Production, The Lion King (Yes! The Lion King is the cartoon Hamlet!). My second Hamlet watching was a more update hip-hop version that I had the please to watch while I was in London my senior year as an undergrad. I have never actually read or watched the traditional version of Hamlet, but from watching those two remixes of it I can definitely tell you the plot of the story! When using remix in this manner, I learned about a classical story. This article express how we should use these remixes in today’s society to reach our students. Example: Using the digital space of blogging and twitter to connect with other students globally using the hashtag #unboundeq as a connection.

“It is how we challenge the status quo and forge new pathways for critical expression as we move further into a society enmeshed in the remixing of the past. ” This quote from the article greatly explains how we need to use what we have in the past to better our present. The old quote of “History finds a way of repeating itself” does not necessarily have to be a bad thing.


What I truly I liked about this article is that it does the opposite of the previous article on remixing. It takes a look at remixing on a more non-tech bases. For one, I wish I could have taken a class like this an undergrad! These assignments in this syllabus are designed to help students use things outside of technology. Fore instance, the classroom Notebook:

Classroom Notebook

A notebook is required for taking hand-written notes in class. It is also used for in-class writing exercises. Please be sure to bring a notebook to class everyday, since access to computers and other personal electronic devices will be limited in order to focus on the specific materials we are engaging with in the classroom.

It has been a long time since I have seen that a notebook is REQUIRED in a classroom setting! Recalling back to my time as an undergrad taking Education courses, I remember my observation portion of my class. When I went to the local high school in Morristown, every students I encountered did not use notebook in class. I literately counted three people throughout the day with notebooks .. and out of the three, I was one of them! It truly showed my age. So reading this syllabus was quite refreshing.

Another aspect from this article I like is the extra credit option that the syllabus gives the students.Imagine how much creativity you would be able to pull out of a student if this was given as an extra credit! Syllabus building is probably one of the most difficult things to build/write. This writing activity gives student not just the space for creativity, put a potential skill that they would be learning in possible future careers.

* Syllabus Building – Describe 10 activities, readings, or assignments that you would include if you were teaching this course next semester. For each of the 10 items, write 2-3 sentences describing the reasoning behind putting this particular item on the syllabus. What would you want students to learn from this? How would you get them to engage with it? (10%)